Pharmaceuticals News -- ScienceDaily
Drug transfer tested using placenta-on-a-chip
Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of their 'organ-on-a-chip' platform in studying how drugs are transported across the human placental barrier.
Drug that treats psoriasis also reduces aortic vascular inflammation
An antibody used to treat the skin disease psoriasis is also effective at reducing aortic inflammation, a key marker of future risk of major cardiovascular events.
Antioxidant treatment prevents sexual transmission of Zika in mice
The antioxidant drug ebselen can prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus from male to female mice, according to new research. The results hint at a potential role for ebselen in preventing Zika spread among humans.
Existing drug effective at preventing onset of type 1 diabetes in 60% of patients
A drug commonly used to control high blood pressure may also help prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes in up to 60 percent of those at risk for the disease.
Cutting off cervical cancer's fuel supply stymies tumors
Researchers have shown that cervical tumors that don't respond to radiation may be vulnerable to therapies that also attack the cancer's fuel supply.
Heroin vaccine blocks lethal overdose
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have achieved a major milestone toward designing a safe and effective vaccine to both treat heroin addiction and block lethal overdose of the drug.
Surgical infections linked to drug-resistant bugs, study suggests
People having surgery in low income countries are more likely to develop an infection than those in wealthier nations, which may be linked to drug-resistant bacteria, research suggests.
Cabozantinib shows promise as first line treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer
A kinase inhibitor called cabozantinib could be a viable therapy option for patients with metastatic, radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid cancer. In a recent trial tumors shrunk in 34 out of 35 patients who took the drug, and more than half of those patients saw the tumor size decrease by more than 30 percent.
Neutron study of glaucoma drugs offers clues about enzyme targets for aggressive cancers
A team of researchers is using neutron imaging to study particulate filters that collect harmful emissions in vehicles. A better understanding of how heat treatments and oxidation methods can remove layers of soot and ash from these filters could lead to improved fuel-efficiency.
Tiny drug-delivering capsules could sustain transplanted insulin-producing cells
A drug-carrying microsphere within a cell-bearing microcapsule could be the key to transplanting insulin-secreting pig pancreas cells into human patients whose own cells have been destroyed by type I diabetes.
Using injectable self-assembled nanomaterials for sustained delivery of drugs
New injectable delivery system forms a non-inflammatory depot that can continuously release drug carriers for months at a time after a single administration.
Lung cancer drug resistance explained by computer simulations
Scientists have used molecular simulations to understand resistance to osimertinib -- an anticancer drug used to treat types of lung cancer.
Printed paper-based device could drug testing more efficient and affordable
Engineers have devised a way to make testing for new drugs more efficient and affordable, and reduce the time for helpful medications to reach the public. The printed paper-based device can speed up and improve the accuracy of the drug screening process. Their work could also be used to diagnose diseases, identify environmental contaminants and pinpoint biological warfare agents.
Apalutamide delays progression of nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer
A multi-institutional phase 3 trial found that treatment with an investigational androgen receptor inhibitor significantly delayed the development of metastasis in patients with prostate cancer that had become resistant to standard androgen-deprivation therapy.
Recreating liver tumors as organoids for faster, more accurate drug screening
A major challenge in developing liver cancer drugs is that preclinical testing occurs in tumor models that do not accurately reflect human tumor features, causing drug candidates to later fail in clinical testing. Now, Singaporean researchers have grown organoids from liver tumors on specially engineered 3-D scaffolds. These organoids replicate important features of the original tumor, including genetic changes and intra-tumor heterogeneity, and could serve as tumor avatars for high-throughput drug screening.
What happens when women stop MS treatment during pregnancy£
Two new studies look at the effects of stopping the newer, stronger drug natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) during pregnancy. Natalizumab is generally prescribed for people with MS who have not responded to or cannot tolerate other treatments for MS as it can have a rare but potentially fatal side effect.
Breakthrough technique combats cancer drug resistance
The ability for cancer cells to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs -- known as multi-drug resistance -- remains a leading cause for tumor recurrence and cancer metastasis, but recent findings offer hope that oncologists could one day direct cancer cells to 'turn off' their resistance capabilities.
Drug shown to reverse brain deficits caused by alcohol
Researchers have identified a drug that could potentially help our brains reboot and reverse the damaging impacts of heavy alcohol consumption on regeneration of brain cells. Their studies in adult mice show that two weeks of daily treatment with the drug tandospirone reversed the effects of 15 weeks of binge-like alcohol consumption on neurogenesis - the ability of the brain to grow and replace neurons (brain cells).
WHO strategy to eradicate yaws should be revised to achieve elimination
First evidence of antibiotic resistance in yaws bacteria highlights need for robust vigilance and improved laboratory surveillance.
Chemically modified drug shows promise for HIV treatment and elimination
In a significant breakthrough that could hasten an eventual HIV cure, a research team has changed the chemical structure of an existing antiviral drug to facilitate it in reaching cells and tissues where HIV resides.
Re-introducing an 'old' antibiotic may help fight multi-drug resistant bacteria
A new study indicates that the drug fosfomycin may be effective for treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In most European countries, the oral formulation is only approved as a 3 gram single dose for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis; however a new study found that a dosing regimen of 6-12 grams per day divided in 3 doses is required for the treatment of systemic multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections.
How old antibiotic compounds could become tomorrow's life-saving drugs
As the fight against drug-resistant infections continues, University of Leeds scientists are looking back at previously discarded chemical compounds, to see if any could be developed for new antibiotics.
'Virus-cracking' molecules advance fight against hepatitis B
Researchers have found that certain molecules -- currently under clinical trial -- are able to 'crack' the protective shell of the hepatitis B virus, suggesting it may be possible to attack the virus after its already taken hold in the body. There is currently no cure for the virus, which can cause liver failure and cancer.
Full-length serotonin receptor structure seen for first time
A team of researchers have used Nobel prize-winning microscope technology to see full length serotonin receptors for the first time. The tiny proteins -- approximately a billionth of a meter long -- are common drug targets, despite limited available information about their structure. Now, new images provide snapshots of the receptors, including details about molecular binding sites that could lead to more precise drug design.
Scientists make it possible to rank the risk of resistance genes
A new study will help to predict antibiotic resistance evolution and thus guide future drug development.
New evidence shows potential of two drugs to block malaria transmission
An international team of researchers has shown that two different compounds -- one, an older malaria drug, the other a common laboratory dye with known antimalarial properties -- can safely and effectively be added to treatment regimens to block transmission of the most common form of malaria in Africa.
Low-tech, low-cost test strips show promise for reducing fentanyl overdoses
A study to assess the feasibility of checking illicit street drugs for fentanyl found that low-cost test strips detect the presence of fentanyl with a high degree of accuracy, and that the vast majority of people who use street drugs are interested in using drug checking to help prevent overdoses.
Asthma drug potential treatment for aortic aneurysm
Aortic aneurysm – the dilation of the aorta – is a serious condition that lacks effective drug treatment. Researchers report however, that a common asthma drug can retard the development of aortic aneurysm in mice.
Multinational companies continue to produce unregulated antibiotics in India
Millions of unapproved antibiotics are being sold in India, according to a new study.
Multidrug resistant malaria spread under the radar for years in Cambodia
The most comprehensive genetic study of malaria parasites in Southeast Asia has shown that resistance to antimalarial drugs was under-reported for years in Cambodia. Researchers have shown that the parasites developed multidrug resistance to first-line treatments extremely rapidly. They found that one main resistant strain had spread aggressively in the five years before clinical resistance was reported. Delays in detecting the spread of resistance could threaten global efforts to eliminate malaria.
New technology: Edible QR code can be the medicine of the future
Researchers have developed a new method for the production of medicine. They print medical drugs in QR coded patterns onto an edible material. The production can be tailored to fit each patient and has the potential to protect against wrong medication and fake medicine according to the researchers.
Analyzing street drugs points to potential early warning system in opioid crisis
In just two years, the powerful opioid fentanyl went from nonexistent to detected in more than 1 in 7 stamp bags analyzed by the Allegheny County Office of the Medical Examiner. The findings suggest that real-time information about stamp bags can be used to supplement current public health surveillance measures and could serve as an early warning of new illegal drugs of high lethality available at the local level.
Breathing problems linked to drug that treats opioid addiction
A drug used to treat opioid addiction could cause breathing problems in some obese patients, according to a new study.
Why basal cell tumors return when drug treatment stops
A new study pinpoints a mechanism that controls how basal cell cancers respond to treatment and offers new ideas for controlling this disease when it gets tricky.
Measuring molecular interactions
Researchers have used a new approach to discover previously unknown interactions between proteins and small metabolic molecules in bacterial cells. The technique can also be used to test the effect of medications.
Interstellar molecules inspire new transformations
When illuminating with LED light, chemists have generated carbynes, a highly reactive chemical species that allowed them to modify drugs like anticancer paclitaxel, antidepressant duloxetine and NSAID ibuprofen.
The fight against tooth decay gets help with a new smart material
When patients go to the dentist to fill a cavity, they're trying to solve a problem -- not create a new one. But many dental patients get some bad news: bacteria can dig under their tooth-colored fillings and cause new cavities, called recurrent caries. U of T researchers designed a novel solution: a filling material with tiny particles containing antimicrobial drugs, designed to stop bacteria in its tracks.
New approach to stimulate an immune response against tumor cells
A team of researchers is trying to find new ways to further enhance the activity of the immune system against cancer. In a new study, the researchers describe how a new type of immunotherapy drug targeting the protein TIM-3 works to stimulate the immune system.
Vitamin deficiency 'puts cancer cells into hibernation'
A new potential therapeutic agent called DPI effectively switches off cancer stem cells, preventing their proliferation, according to new research.
Botulinum-type toxins jump to a new kind of bacteria
A toxin much like the one that causes botulism has unexpectedly turned up in a completely different type of bacteria - Enterococcus. Where it came from is unclear, but the finding is concerning because enterococci have lately become a leading cause of multi-drug-resistant infections, especially in health care settings.
Drug trial protocol redactions by industry sponsors exposed
New research exposes the extent of redactions in protocols for industry-sponsored randomized drug trials. Trial protocols are needed for a proper assessment of the veracity of drug trial reports. The researchers found widespread redactions in the protocols for commercially sponsored trials.
Nearly one out of five NSAID users exceed daily limit
Chances are you or someone you know has used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) within the last month. NSAIDs, such as Advil (ibuprofen), Aleve (naproxen) and Celebrex, are among the most commonly used medicines in the US. Now, for the first time, researchers have found that 15 percent of adult ibuprofen users exceed the maximum recommended dose of ibuprofen or other NSAIDs in a one-week period.
Developing a roadside test for marijuana intoxication isn't as easy as it sounds
As marijuana legalization gains momentum in the United States, researchers worry about keeping the public safe, particularly on the roads. Recent studies have identified new biomarkers that can be used to estimate a person's recent cannabinoid intake. But, using those markers to judge cognitive and behavioral impairment is complex, say toxicologists.
'Forgotten' antibiotic offers hope against worst superbugs
An antibiotic overlooked since its discovery 40 years ago could help develop new drugs against life-threatening infections caused by some of the world's most dangerous superbugs.
Thirty years of innovation pays off as oligonucleotide therapeutics come to market
The recent approval of SpinrazaTM (nusinersen) marks the arrival of a new class of biological products -- oligonucleotide therapeutics. A recent publication shows that the thirty year path from the initiation of research on oligonucleotides as therapeutics to the emergence of effective products followed predictable patterns of innovation, in which novel products are successfully developed only after the underlying basic research reaches a requisite level of maturity.
Cannabidiol may help to reduce seizures for people with treatment-resistant form of epilepsy, study suggests
Treatment with a pharmaceutical formulation of cannabidiol alongside other anti-epilepsy treatments helped to reduce the number of drop seizures -- seizures which involve sudden falls due to loss of muscle tone -- in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who did not respond to previous treatment, according to a recent phase 3 randomized clinical trial.
MMV malaria box phenotyped against plasmodium and toxoplasma
Scientists have completed phenotypic screening of a large collection of potent chemical inhibitors (known as MMV Malaria Box), against pathogenic parasites toxoplasma gondii and plasmodium falciparum, causative agents of human toxoplasmosis and malaria. This knowledge opens up new avenues to study unique stages of infectious cycle that are affected by inhibitor classes towards anti-parasitic drug development.
Alzheimer's drug targeting soluble amyloid falls short in a large clinical trial
Researchers report that solanezumab, a monoclonal antibody-based treatment for Alzheimer's disease developed by Eli Lilly that targets amyloid plaques, did not significantly slow cognitive decline.
Making milestones against non-small cell lung cancer
Progress concerning lung cancer has been enormous in the past 20 years, according to a new review from researchers.
Breakthrough could lead to better antipsychotic drugs
Although antipsychotic drugs are among the most widely prescribed medications, individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism-spectrum disorders often experience severe side effects because the drugs interact with dozens of other brain receptors. Now, scientists have solved the first high-resolution crystal structure of the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) bound to the antipsychotic drug risperidone, yielding a long-awaited tool for drug developers, psychiatrists, and neuroscientists.
Leprosy's drug resistance and origin revealed by genome analysis
Scientists have isolated leprosy bacteria directly from human samples, and analyzed the purified genomes to identify mutations that confer drug resistance to the bacterium, as well as gain insights into the origins of the disease.
Herbal products may compromise prescription drugs and cause serious side effects
An analysis of published studies and reports indicates that a number of herbal products may affect the properties of prescription drugs, leading to alterations in the drugs' effectiveness as well as potentially dangerous side effects.
Cells of 3 advanced cancers die with drug-like compounds that reverse chemo failure
Researchers report that they have discovered three drug-like compounds that successfully reverse chemotherapy failure in three of the most commonly aggressive cancers -- ovarian, prostate and breast. The molecules were first discovered computationally via SMU's ManeFrame high-performance supercomputer. Now their effectiveness against specific cancers has been confirmed via wet-lab experiments.
Combination chemotherapy may significantly improve treatment for deadly brain tumor
A team of investigators have found that adding the chemotherapy drug hydroxyurea to the current chemotherapy protocol for glioblastoma significantly increased survival in animal models.
New long-acting approach for malaria prophylaxis developed using nanomedicine approach
A new study highlights a novel long-acting medicine for the prevention of malaria. The approach uses nanotechnology to improve the delivery of an existing antimalarial drug via a novel injectable format that can maintain blood concentration of the drug for weeks or months following a single dose.
Prescription drug labels provide scant dosing guidance for obese kids
Despite the US Congress providing incentives to drug manufacturers to encourage the study of medications in children, few approved drugs include safe dosing information for obese kids.
New drug combination helps kickstart the immune system to fight back against cancer
Scientists have found a way to boost the immune system to help it fight back against cancer. The breakthrough involves the first ever use of a combination of chemotherapy and a drug being trialed as a treatment for neonatal jaundice, that together help kick start the body's natural defenses.
New report calls into question effectiveness of pregnancy anti-nausea drug
Previously unpublished information from the clinical trial that the US Food and Drug Administration relied on to approve the most commonly prescribed medicine for nausea in pregnancy indicates the drug is not effective, a new report says.
Breakthrough enables screening millions of human antibodies for new drug discovery
A new article outlines a pioneering method of screening a person's diverse set of antibodies for rapid therapeutic discovery. Antibody proteins are an important part of the human immune system that specifically target foreign viruses and bacteria, and they have been the fastest-growing class of approved drugs in the past several decades.
'Heart-on-a-chip' process aims to speed up drug testing
Testing new clinical drugs' effect on heart tissue could become quicker and more straightforward, thanks to new research. The study sets out a new, faster method for manufacturing a 'heart-on-a-chip,' which can be used to test the reaction of heart tissue to external stimuli.
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