Pharmaceuticals News -- ScienceDaily
Yeast spotlights genetic variation's link to drug resistance
Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.
Novel mechanism of resistance to anti-cancer drugs
Investigators have discovered a novel non-genetic cause of resistance to the targeted anti-cancer therapy cetuximab. Their findings suggest a strategy for overcoming this resistance.
Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development
Scientists have performed neutron structural analysis of a vitamin B6-dependent protein, potentially opening avenues for new antibiotics and drugs to battle diseases such as drug-resistant tuberculosis, malaria and diabetes. Specifically, the team used neutron crystallography to study the location of hydrogen atoms in aspartate aminotransferase, or AAT, an enzyme vital to the metabolism of certain amino acids.
New antibiotic resistance genes found
Researchers have found several previously unknown genes that make bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics. The genes were found by searching large volumes of bacterial DNA.
Experimental 'nano-chemo' particle to treat bladder cancer
Working with mice and rats, researchers have developed a way to successfully deliver nano-sized, platinum-based chemotherapy drugs to treat a form of bladder cancer called nonmuscle-invasive that is found in the lining of the organ and has not invaded deeper into bladder tissue. The tiny drug-infused particles, they say, potentially offer a less toxic clinical alternative to standard chemotherapy delivered intravenously or through a catheter inserted into the bladder.
Gel to fight rheumatoid arthritis
A new potentially therapeutic gel has been developed, which detects nitric oxide, absorbs excess fluids and delivers drugs.
New breast cancer drug defeats the Ras genes notorious for causing many types of cancer
A new study has shown the recently approved breast cancer drug neratinib can block the function of Ras as well as several other oncogenes through an unexpected process.
Sequencing test enables precise identification of drug-resistant TB
Two studies document how a new advanced genetic sequencing approach can help thwart the growing worldwide threat posed by drug-resistant mutations of tuberculosis (TB). The threat of TB is increasing in some places as mutant versions of the disease become more and more resistant to current drug treatments.
Indian government needs to do more to tackle rising sale of unapproved antibiotics, experts say
In India, the sale of antibiotics requiring the tightest control and regulation is rising the fastest, according to a new analysis. The correspondence highlights serious hurdles for controlling antimicrobial resistance in the country.
A step towards a new drug to treat fungal infections that kill 1.6 million people annually
Scientists are a step closer to developing a drug to treat life-threatening fungal infections that cause more than 1.6 million deaths annually.
Home-brewed poppy seed tea can be lethal
A home-brewing technique used to extract morphine from unwashed poppy seeds can produce lethal doses of the drug, according to new research.
A lesson for Canada: Quebec pharmacare system creates winners and losers
Quebec spends $200 more per person than the rest of Canada to provide prescription drug coverage to everyone in the province, finds new research that could inform plans for a nationwide universal drug plan.
Antibiotics for dental procedures linked to superbug infection
Dental procedures are an overlooked source of antibiotic prescribing, which is a concern as these medications increase the risk of developing C. difficile.
New antifungal drug
Medical researchers have developed a new antifungal drug to help in the treatment of life threatening invasive fungal infections such as invasive aspergillosis.
New research to combat pancreatic cancer
New research is underway that could help scientists combat the most lethal of cancers: pancreatic cancer. In a recent study, scientists demonstrated that bacteria in pancreatic tumors degrade a chemotherapy drug -- Gemcitabine -- most commonly used to treat patients who have pancreatic cancer.
'Body-on- a-chip' system to accelerate testing of new drugs
Being able to test new drugs in a 3-D model of the body has the potential to speed up drug discovery, reduce the use of animal testing and advance personalized medicine.
Completing the drug design jigsaw
A powerful new way of analysing how drugs interact with molecules in the body could aid the design of better treatments with fewer side-effects.
No clear evidence that most new cancer drugs extend or improve life
The majority of cancer drugs approved in Europe between 2009 and 2013 entered the market without clear evidence that they improved survival or quality of life for patients, finds a study.
Light-activated nanoparticles can supercharge current antibiotics
Light-activated nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots, can provide a crucial boost in effectiveness for antibiotic treatments used to combat drug-resistant superbugs such as E. coli and Salmonella, new research shows.
IBD patients may stay healthier when doctors monitor medications before they lose efficacy
Proactive monitoring of blood levels of the therapeutic drug infliximab was associated with improved outcomes including lower risk of surgery and hospitalization.
When HIV drugs don't cooperate
Researchers studying combinations of drugs against HIV have discovered why certain drugs sometimes act synergistically but sometimes do not.
New system finds and targets vulnerabilities in lung cancer cells
Genetic changes that help lung cancer thrive also make it vulnerable to a promising experimental drug.
Study reveals molecular pathway of weight-controlling hormone
Scientists have revealed deep insights into the role that a little-understood human hormone plays in regulating body weight. Named Growth and Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15), this hormone is typically active only when the body experiences acute or prolonged stress, including following exposure to tissue-damaging toxins, such as chemotherapy, or during chronic disease, such as obesity or cancer. As a result, the GDF15 pathway holds promise for the development of potential therapeutics for diseases of both excess and insufficient body weight.
Sticker shock
Preventing a preterm birth could cost as little as $200 or as much as $20,000, depending on which one of two medications a doctor orders, according to a new analysis.
New approach for AIDS: Lock HIV in reservoir cells, to die through apoptosis
With the successful suppression of the AIDS virus (HIV) through medication, the focus turns toward its eradication. Researchers have developed a new compound that is key to the destruction of HIV. When the compound is introduced into infected cells, viral budding is suppressed thereby confining it within the host cells. The cell then dies naturally through apoptosis. This treatment is hoped to lead to the complete recovery from AIDS in the near future.
Adulteration of proprietary Chinese medicines and health products poses severe health risks
Traditional Chinese medicine is widely used as a form of complementary medicine all over the world for various indications and for improving general health. Various reports have documented the adulteration of pCMs and health products with undeclared agents, including prescription drugs, drug analogues, and banned drugs. Such adulteration can have serious and even fatal consequences.
Exploring ways that a drug like Avandia can be made safer
With the heightened concerns over the dangerous side effects of the once-popular antidiabetic drug Avandia, researchers are working to understand how small molecules, like those in Avandia, can have such varied effects throughout the body. The insights could help researchers design new drugs with better efficacy and fewer side effects.
A new approach to cancer drug discovery
Scientists have developed and demonstrated a promising new strategy for the discovery of novel anti-cancer therapies.
Speedy urine test for amphetamines sends results via app
Researchers have developed a wireless sensor and a smartphone app that can detect the presence of speed in a drop of human urine in seconds. The prototype device is also portable enough to be worn as a bracelet, has unprecedented sensitivity for amphetamines with low risk for false-positive results, and costs about $50 to produce.
Medication that treats parasite infection also has anti-cancer effect
Scientists report a new gene target, KPNB1, for treatment against epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). EOC is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women and has a particularly grim outlook upon diagnosis. They also find that ivermectin exerts an anti-tumor effect on EOC cells by interacting with the KPNB1 gene. Because ivermectin is already approved to treat parasitic infections in patients, experiments for its effectiveness in an anti-cancer regimen is expected to significantly lower costs compared to untested drug compounds.
Epigenetics of addiction: Epigenetic study untangles addiction and relapse in the brain
New research uncovers an epigenetic reason why drug users who attempt to quit are prone to relapse despite negative consequences to their health and livelihood. The findings help to explain how casual drug use can produce long-lasting brain changes that increase vulnerability to relapse in individuals suffering from substance use disorders.
Drug combo gangs up to take on triple-negative breast cancer
In the hunt for novel treatments against an aggressive form of breast cancer, researchers combined a new protein inhibitor with a chemotherapy drug to create a powerful combination that resulted in cancer cell death.
Biochemists discover mechanism that helps flu viruses evolve
Flu viruses' rapid evolution relies in part on hijacking some of the cellular machinery of the infected host cell -- a group of proteins called chaperones, which help other proteins fold into the correct shape. When viruses are unable to get help from these proteins, they do not evolve as rapidly, research shows.
First-in-human testing of new cancer drug reported
The first clinical trials of a new drug that targets solid cancer tumors has now been tested. The Phase 1A clinical trials mark the first time ever the drug, called BXQ-350, was used in people. BXQ-350 is comprised of a human protein called SapC and a human lipid called DOPS.
Discovering potential therapeutic protein inhibitors for Chagas disease
Scientists have identified four potential protein inhibitors and unlocked drug discovery strategies for the treatment of Chagas disease by using advanced three-dimensional computer simulation by supercomputer TSUBAME in combination with in vitro experiments and X-ray crystallography.
Prostaglandin EI inhibits leukemia stem cells
Two drugs, already approved for safe use in people, may be able to improve therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a blood cancer that affects myeloid cells, according to new results.
Streamlined process opens drug development to a new class of steroids
Researchers have developed a technique to produce synthetic steroids that could pave the way for a cascade of new drug discoveries, significantly reducing the expense and time needed to develop therapeutics from an underexplored collection of molecules.
Drug targeting technique could aid therapies for immune diseases
A new technique that targets drugs to specific cells could lead to improved therapies for diseases caused by an overactive immune response. The research could help people affected by conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, where the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues.
First large scale study of cocaine users leads to breakthrough in drug testing
A rapid and highly sensitive fingerprint test has been developed that can take just seconds to confirm whether someone has used cocaine.
Antibiotics, biocidal cleaners may spread multidrug resistance in MRSA
Antibiotic use on people or pets, and use of biocidal cleaning products such as bleach, are associated with multidrug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the home. This contamination of the home environment may contribute to reinfection of both humans and animals with MRSA, and to subsequent failure of treatment.
Emergency contraception not as accessible as it should be, say researchers
Efforts to remove barriers to accessing emergency contraception (EC) scored victories in 2013, when the US Food and Drug Administration removed age restrictions on over-the-counter sales of the levonogestrel drug Plan B.
Quick test may speed antibiotic treatment, combat drug resistance
Researchers have demonstrated a potential new tactic for rapidly determining whether an antibiotic combats a given infection, thus hastening effective medical treatment and limiting the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Their method can quickly sense mechanical fluctuations of bacterial cells and any changes induced by an antibiotic.
Communication among health care facilities key to preventing spread of drug-resistant bacteria
Communication breakdowns between care facilities can pave the way for outbreaks of infection, according to research on the spread of an extensively drug-resistant bacterium.
Researchers identify new target, develop new drug for cancer therapies
Opening up a new pathway to fight cancer, researchers have found a way to target an enzyme that is crucial to tumor growth while also blocking the mechanism that has made past attempts to target that enzyme resistant to treatment. Researchers were able to use this finding to develop a drug that successfully inhibits tumor growth of melanoma as well as pancreatic and colorectal cancer in mice.
Cell phone data coupled with sewage testing show drug use patterns
The drugs people inhale, inject or ingest ultimately end up in some form down the toilet. So scientists have started monitoring drug use through sewage-based epidemiology. But this approach hasn't taken into account the variation in number of people who add to wastewater in a given area at a given time. Now one team reports a way to account for commutes and vacations: by tracking cell phone signals.
Contribution of opioid-related deaths to the change in life expectancy in the US
Between 2000 and 2015 in the US, life expectancy increased overall but drug-poisoning deaths, mostly related to opioids, contributed to reducing life expectancy, according to a study.
Treatment-resistant melanoma may be vulnerable to a drug holiday, study finds
A new study has uncovered the mechanisms by which treatment-resistant melanoma become vulnerable to cessation of a class of drugs called MAP kinase (MAPK)-targeted inhibitors. By identifying these mechanisms, the scientists discovered that therapeutic benefits for patients could derive from a one-two punch of a drug holiday of MAPK inhibitors followed by a class of drugs called DNA repair inhibitors.
Beta blockers not needed after heart attack if other medications taken
Beta blockers are not needed after a heart attack if heart-attack survivors are taking ACE inhibitors and statins, new research suggests. The study is the first to challenge the current clinical guideline that heart-attack survivors should take all three drugs -- beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins -- for the rest of their lives.
How bacteria hinder chemotherapy
Scientists have found bacteria in pancreatic tumors that metabolize a common drug, explains a new report.
Antimalarial drug combined with light sensitive molecules for promising treatment of cancer
Scientists have discovered that a combination of artemisinin, which is a potent anti-malarial drug, and aminolaevulinic acid, which is a photosensitizer, could kill colorectal cancer cells and suppress tumor growth more effectively than administering artemisinin alone. This novel combination therapy could also have fewer side effects.
Immune system linked to alcohol drinking behavior
Researchers have found a new link between the brain's immune system and the desire to drink alcohol in the evening.
Gonorrhea strains across Europe becoming more susceptible to main treatment options
According to test results, resistance levels to the main antimicrobials used for treatment of gonorrhea infection have seen an encouraging decrease since 2010. However, resistance to one antibiotic agent which is part of the suggested dual therapy of gonorrhea remains high and threatens the effectiveness of this regimen.
50 years ago, Clomid gave birth to the era of assisted reproduction
When Dr. Eli Adashi began practicing fertility medicine in 1974, there was nothing so revolutionary as in vitro fertilization, but at least there was the drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid). Before that came to market in 1967, Adashi said with only a little exaggeration, the job of a fertility doctor was basically to refer couples who could not conceive a baby to adoption agencies.
Unintentional drug use continues among molly users in EDM party scene
Use of MDMA or 'Molly' is common in the electronic dance music scene, but research is showing that many Molly users are using other drugs unknowingly.
New insights, possible solutions for opioid epidemics using machine
Unique structural, biological and chemical insights have been identified in the way different opioid drugs activate the receptors and specific signaling pathways responsible for the drug's beneficial and adverse effects, according to a study.
New drug effective against malaria
Researchers have developed a new drug that is effective against non-severe cases of malaria, according to results from an FDA-supervised clinical trial. The results are significant as public health experts have long warned that the parasite responsible for most malaria cases, Plasmodium falciparum, is developing resistance to widely used treatments. New medications are needed to build up secondary defenses against drug-resistant strains of the parasite.
Children with asthma are being prescribed unnecessary antibiotics
Children with asthma are more likely to be prescribed antibiotics even though there is no evidence that they need them any more than children without asthma.
Immunotherapy combination safe and 62 percent effective in metastatic melanoma patients
Immunotherapy is a promising approach in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, an aggressive and deadly form of skin cancer, In a phase 1b clinical trial with 21 patients, researchers tested the safety and efficacy of combining the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab with an oncolytic virus called T-VEC. The results suggest that this combination treatment, which had a 62 percent response rate, may work better than using either therapy on its own.
Comparing cancer drug effectiveness from cells to mice to man
Researchers who studied the cancer drug gemcitabine in cell culture, mouse models and humans have shown that the drug, at administered (tolerated) dose, arrests cell growth during cancer progression. This information can lead to better understanding how gemcitabine can be combined with other drugs at identified phases to more effectively treat cancer.
Malaria: Drug candidate may reduce spread of the parasite
Scientists have identified a class of compounds that can block transmission of the parasite that causes malaria and reduce resistance to currently available drugs.
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