Pharmaceuticals News -- ScienceDaily
Boosting the antibiotic arsenal
A NEW way to make bacteria more vulnerable to a class of antibiotics known as quinolones, which include ciprofloxacin and are often used to treat infections such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, has been discovered by researchers.
Scientists slow progression of fatal form of muscular dystrophy
Researchers report that a new drug reduces fibrosis (scarring) and prevents loss of muscle function in an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).
Breath test could be possible for drugs and disease
Testing for drug use and disease in humans could soon be much simpler, thanks to new research. Whereas drug tests currently rely on blood or urine samples, researchers have identified a method for drug testing by analyzing various compounds in exhaled breath.
Recreational drug users not what we think
A researcher has been investigating why Australians are among the top users of illegal drugs in the world -- and has uncovered some revealing new facts about the motivations of recreational drug users.
Brain scans may reveal most effective anti-drug messages
What if you could look into the brains of potential drug abusers and see what messages would be most likely to persuade them to 'just say no£' That's the ultimate goal of researchers whose new study scanned the brains of people while they watched anti-drug public service announcements.
Go with the flow (or against it)
Researchers are using magnetic fields to influence a specific type of bacteria to swim against strong currents, opening up the potential of using the microscopic organisms for drug delivery in environments with complex microflows- - like the human bloodstream.
Dibenzoazepine defender: Drug found to be effective against resistant hepatitis C
Researchers have identified a class of chemicals that can combat resistant strains of the hepatitis C virus, as well as parasites that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis.
Safer opioid drugs could treat pain and save lives
Opioid drugs are the most widely prescribed and effective type of pain medication. But they are highly addictive and have some unpleasant and potentially deadly side effects. Now a group of researchers may have found a way to make opioids safer by separating the drugs' pain relieving effects from their most dangerous side effect, respiratory suppression, which, in very severe cases, causes patients to stop breathing and to die.
New TB drugs possible with understanding of old antibiotic
Tuberculosis, and other life-threatening microbial diseases, could be more effectively tackled with future drugs, thanks to new research into an old antibiotic.
When the nose doesn't know: Can loss of smell be repaired£
Researchers are examining the behavior of stem cells within the context of aging and loss of smell. They report mechanisms to regenerate adult stem cells in mice to restore smell cells: it mimics induced pluripotency, but is simpler, involving only two Yamanaka factors.
Programmable drug delivery platform combats diseased cells at genetic level
A research team has developed a unique linker technology to connect a synthetic drug delivery vehicle referred to as a nucleic acid nanocapsule (NAN) with a new peptide cross-linker approach. The NAN enables both a small molecule drug and a nucleic acid -- RNA or DNA -- to be delivered to a cell. This combination generates a nanocapsule capable of shepherding genetic or pharmaceutical molecules to a target on or within a cell.
Vulnerability identified for subtypes of glioblastoma
Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer, typically fails to respond to treatment or rapidly becomes drug resistant. Researchers have now identified a strategy that pinpoints a genetically distinct subpopulation of patients with glioblastoma that is particularly sensitive to drugs like cilengitide that target a specific cell adhesion receptor.
New treatment investigated for brain tapeworm infection
Treating neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with tapeworm larvae, often leads to inflammation and seizures when the parasites in the brain die. Now, researchers have reported that pretreatment with the anti-tumor necrosis factor drug etanercept (ETN) is a viable strategy to manage this post-treatment inflammation.
Antibiotics may reduce the ability of immune cells to kill bacteria
A new study has shown that antibiotics can reduce the ability of mouse immune cells to kill bacteria, and that changes to the biochemical environment directly elicited by treatment can protect the bacterial pathogen.
Promising target for treating brain tumors in children
Research offer new hope for children with highly aggressive brain tumors like atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and medulloblastoma. Previously, the authors of the study have shown that an experimental drug that inhibits polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) stopped pediatric brain tumor growth in vitro.
How a biophysical simulation method might accelerate drug target discovery
Researchers have developed an approach to overcome a major stumbling block in testing new drug targets.
Lack of communication puts older adults at risk of clashes between their medicines
Most older Americans take multiple medicines every day. But a new poll suggests they don't get -- or seek -- enough help to make sure those medicines actually mix safely. That lack of communication could be putting older adults at risk of health problems from interactions between their drugs, and between their prescription drugs and other substances such as over-the-counter medicines, supplements, food and alcohol.
Synthetic cannabis-like drug reduces sleep apnea
A synthetic cannabis-like drug in a pill was safe and effective in treating obstructive sleep apnea in the first large multi-site study of a drug for apnea.
New technique reduces side-effects, improves delivery of chemotherapy nanodrugs
A new method for delivering chemotherapy nanodrugs has been created that increases the drugs' bioavailability and reduces side-effects. Their study shows that administering an FDA-approved nutrition source prior to chemotherapy can reduce the amount of the toxic drugs that settle in the spleen, liver and kidneys.
Biology, chemistry combine to generate new antibiotics
Combining the innovations of synthetic biology with biology and chemistry, a team of scientists has generated a brand-new platform that will allow the production of desperately needed brand-new antibiotics.
Cancer drug starts clinical trials in human brain-cancer patients
A drug that spurs cancer cells to self-destruct has been cleared for use in a clinical trial of human patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, a rare malignant brain tumor, and glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive late-stage cancer of the brain.
Drug-delivering nanoparticles seek and destroy elusive cancer stem cells
Researchers are sending tiny drug-laden nanoparticles on a mission to seek and destroy cancer stem cells, the elusive and rare cells that can cause cancer to come back even when years have passed since the initial tumor was treated. Encapsulated in the particles is the drug niclosamide -- a drug commonly prescribed to treat tapeworm infections, but in cancer stem cells it turns off key gene pathways that give the cells stemlike properties.
Quest for new medicines could be helped by cell discovery
A key discovery has been made that could speed up the production of cells in the lab for studying diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
New chemistry method simplifies late-stage modification of drug compounds
Chemists have invented a technique that overcomes a long-standing problem in organic chemistry and should streamline the process of discovery and development for many new drugs.
New HIV guideline outlines cost-effective prevention strategies for high-risk people
A new Canadian guideline outlines how new biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection can best be used in high-risk populations both before and after exposure to the virus. The guideline applies to adults at risk of HIV infection through sexual activity or injection drug use.
Promising new treatment for rare pregnancy cancer leads to remission in patients
Three out of four patients with the cancerous forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) went into remission after receiving the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab in a clinical trial, report researchers. The trial is the first to show that pembrolizumab can be used to successfully treat women with GTD.
Schizophrenia drug development may be 'de-risked' with new research tool
Biomarkers that can help with development of better treatments for schizophrenia have now been identified, report investigators.
Autoimmune disease discovery could spark new treatments
Researchers have discovered a potent, drug-like compound that could someday revolutionize treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.
Decongestant revealed as 'highly effective' in starving cancer cells
Cancer researchers seeking non-toxic alternatives to harmful chemotherapy are reporting a highly significant result for a humble cold remedy.
Realistic rodent model of drug addiction
Drug addiction may not require a habitual relationship with a substance, suggests findings from a new model of cocaine administration in rats that better captures the human experience of obtaining and using drugs. The research represents a step towards a translational animal model of addiction that challenges widely held views about drug users.
Preclinical study demonstrates promising treatment for rare bone disease
Researchers have led a preclinical study demonstrating that the drug palovarotene suppresses the formation of bony tumors (osteochondromas) in models of multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE). The research is an important step toward an effective pharmacological treatment for MHE, a rare genetic condition that affects about 1 in 50,000 people worldwide.
Diabetes drug helps repair UV-damaged DNA in cells of 'Moon children'
The severe and debilitating genetic disease Xeroderma pigmentosum impedes cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. Scientists found a drug approved for diabetes treatment to alleviate the impact of the gene defect in cell culture, which led to the discovery of a previously unknown DNA repair mechanism.
Benzodiazepines increase mortality in persons with Alzheimer's disease
Benzodiazepine and related drug use is associated with a 40 percent increase in mortality among persons with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study.
'Magic' sinus paths could mean new instructions for nasal sprays
Sinus infections, inflammation and nasal congestion constantly plague Americans, often leading to unpleasant symptoms and even missed days of work. Traditional nasal spray anti-inflammatory medications attempt to treat the symptoms noninvasively, but are not very efficient in transmitting the active drug ingredients directly into the sinus cavities.
Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs
Researchers can use a new type of measurement to predict how drugs will affect cancer cells taken from multiple myeloma patients. Their predictions correlated with how those patients actually fared when treated with those drugs.
Novel therapeutic target discovered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer
A new protein has been identified in a common subtype of breast cancer which can potentially offer more effective therapies for the future.
Anti-malaria drug shows promise as Zika virus treatment
A medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus, scientists have discovered. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive.
New test to measure the effectiveness of CF drugs
A new laboratory model has been created to measure and compare the responses of CF and normal airway cells to CF-related infectious/inflammatory factors.
Using social media big data to combat prescription drug crisis
Researchers conducted a critical review of existing literature to determine whether social media big data can be used to understand communication and behavioral patterns related to prescription drug abuse. Their study found that with proper research methods and attention to privacy and ethical issues, social media big data can reveal important information concerning drug abuse, such as user-reported side effects, drug cravings, emotional states, and risky behaviors.
Computer program finds new uses for old drugs
Researchers have developed a computer program to find new indications for old drugs. The computer program, called DrugPredict, matches existing data about FDA-approved drugs to diseases, and predicts potential drug efficacy. In a recent study, the researchers successfully translated DrugPredict results into the laboratory, and showed common pain medications -- like aspirin -- can kill patient-derived epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
New model estimates odds of events that trigger sudden cardiac death
A new computational model of heart tissue allows researchers to estimate the probability of rare heartbeat irregularities that can cause sudden cardiac death.
How to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
A discovery might help designers of miniature 'lab-on-a-chip' technologies to grow three-dimensional colonies of cancer cells inside a chip's tiny chambers, rather than the merely two-dimensional colonies that they generally can culture now. Chips with 3-D cell arrays could furnish more realistic biological environments for drug testing.
Potential cell receptors to reduce antibiotic resistance identified
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The pathogen is resistant to many antibiotics so treating those infections, particularly in patients with compromised immune systems, is difficult. A new study has identified certain chemical receptors in cells that could deceive the bacteria and improve patient response to drugs.
Shape-shifting agent targets harmful bacteria in the stomach
A new shape-shifting polymer can target and kill Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the stomach without killing helpful bacteria in the gut. Such a treatment could improve the digestive health of billions of people worldwide who contract H. pylori infections. The antimicrobial agent morphs into a bacterial hole-puncher in the stomach's acidic environment and reverts to an amorphous, inactive structure when it reaches the higher pH environment of the small intestine.
Blood test spots paracetamol overdose patients at risk of liver damage
People who overdose on paracetamol could be helped by a blood test that shows immediately if they are going to suffer liver damage, research has found.
Wouldn’t it be great if eyedrops didn’t spill out of your eyes£
A new kind of eyedropper can deliver tiny droplets of medication, treating the eye more precisely than traditional eyedroppers, while reducing waste and avoiding dangerous side effects.
New mechanisms discovered that bacteria use to protect themselves from antibiotics
Researchers have identified new mechanisms used by bacteria to resist infection-fighting antibiotics.
Mutant gene network in colon cancer identified
The principles of the gene network for colon tumorigenesis have been identified. The principles will be used to find the molecular target for effective anti-cancer drugs in the future. Further, this research gained attention for using a systems biology approach, which is an integrated research area of IT and BT.
MS: Ozanimod successful in clinical trials
Results from two phase 3 trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of the drug ozanimod have now been released.
LEDs light the way for better drug therapies
A revolutionary new technique to create radioactive molecules has the potential to bring new medicines to patients much faster than before -- using light. While the previous approach took months, the new photocatalytic process replaces hydrogen with tritium in just hours.
Cancer drug parity laws lower costs for many, but not everyone
In an analysis of the impact of parity laws, researchers report modest improvements in costs for many patients. However, patients who were already paying the most for their medications, saw their monthly costs go up.
Traditional Amazonian drug linked to improved sense of wellbeing, study suggests
A psychedelic drug traditionally used in South America improves people's general sense of wellbeing and may offer a treatment for alcoholism and depression, new research suggests.
Nanoshells could deliver more chemo with fewer side effects
Researchers investigating ways to deliver high doses of cancer-killing drugs inside tumors have shown they can use a laser and light-activated gold nanoparticles to remotely trigger the release of FDA-approved cancer drugs inside cancer cells in laboratory cultures.
How cells detect, mend DNA damage may improve chemotherapy
Human cells have a way of detecting and mending DNA damage caused by some common chemotherapy drugs, according to a new study. The findings could have important implications for treating cancer.
Survival of the least-fit: Antiviral drug selectively targets the nastiest viruses
An antiviral drug that inhibits a virus' replication machinery selectively targets the most aggressive viruses, according to new research that looked at the infection of individual cells by a virus and the consequence of antiviral intervention.
Tumor analysis post-surgery provides breakthrough in how patients respond to treatment
Researchers have developed a new platform for assessing anti-cancer drug efficacy in lung cancer that is more reflective of patient response than previously used model systems. The platform relies on the derivation of 'explants' from tumor tissue obtained fresh from surgery and treatment of these samples ex vivo with anti-cancer drugs. The platform has the potential to significantly reduce drug attrition rates and increase the success of anti-cancer drugs in the clinic, thus improving patient benefit, say researchers.
Research on reversing negative effects of maternal obesity
A drug that increases energy metabolism may lead to a new approach to prevent obesity in children born to overweight mothers, researchers have found.
New model reveals possibility of pumping antibiotics into bacteria
Researchers have discovered that a cellular pump known to move drugs like antibiotics out of E. coli bacteria has the potential to bring them in as well, opening new lines of research into combating the bacteria.
New drug targets for a form of muscular dystrophy
A new paper details success in identifying new drug targets that potentially could slow or halt the progression of a form muscular dystrophy, an illness characterized by progressive muscle degeneration.
Age-old malaria treatment found to improve nanoparticle delivery to tumors
A new study shows that a 70-year-old malaria drug can block immune cells in the liver so nanoparticles can arrive at their intended tumor site, overcoming a significant hurdle of targeted drug delivery.
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