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Call Option
A call option is an agreement that gives the option buyer the right to buy the underlying asset at a specified price within a specific time period.
Annuity
An annuity is a financial product that pays out a fixed stream of payments to an individual, primarily used as an income stream for retirees.
Preferred Stock
Preferred stock refers to a class of ownership that has a higher claim on assets and earnings than common stock has.
Liability
A liability is defined as a company's legal financial debts or obligations that arise during the course of business operations.
Futures Contract
An agreement to buy or sell the underlying commodity or asset at a specific price at a future date.
Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is a statistic that measures the dispersion of a dataset relative to its mean and is calculated as the square root of the variance.
Amortization
Amortization is an accounting technique used to lower the cost value of a finite life or intangible asset incrementally through scheduled charges to income.
Swap
A swap is a derivative contract through which two parties exchange financial instruments, such as interest rates, commodities, or foreign exchange.
Compound Interest
Compound interest is interest calculated on the initial principal and also on the accumulated interest of previous periods of a deposit or loan.
Retained Earnings
Retained earnings are the cumulative net earnings or profit of a firm after accounting for dividends — some people refer to them as the earnings surplus.
Liquidity
Liquidity is the degree to which an asset or security can be quickly bought or sold in the market without affecting the asset's price.
Yield Curve
A yield curve is a line that plots the interest rates, at a set point in time, of bonds having equal credit quality but differing maturity dates.
Income Statement
An income statement is one of the three major financial statements that reports a company's financial performance over a specific accounting period.
Security
A security is a fungible, negotiable financial instrument that represents some type of financial value, usually in the form of a stock, bond, or option.
Short Selling
Short selling is the sale of a security that is not owned by the seller or that the seller has borrowed in the hope that the price will go down.
Book Value
An asset's book value is equal to its carrying value on the balance sheet, and companies calculate it by netting the asset against its accumulated depreciation.
Gross Margin
A company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold, divided by the total sales revenue, expressed as a percentage. The gross margin represents the percent of total sales revenue that the company retains after incurring the direct costs associated with producing the goods and services sold by a company.
Inflation
Inflation is the rate at which prices for goods and services is rising and the worth of currency is dropping.
Deferred Annuity
A deferred annuity is a type of annuity contract that delays income, installment or lump-sum payments until the investor elects to receive them.
Discount Rate
Discount rate is the interest rate charged to commercial banks and other depository institutions for loans received from the Federal Reserve's discount window.
Economies of Scale
Economies of scale refer to reduced costs per unit that arise from increased total output of a product. For example, a larger factory will produce power hand tools at a lower unit price, and a larger medical system will reduce cost per medical procedure.
Free Cash Flow - FCF
Free cash flow represents cash a company can generate after accounting for capital expenditures needed to maintain or maximize its asset base.
Quick Ratio
The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet its short-term obligations with its most liquid assets.
Leverage
Leverage results from using borrowed capital as a source of funding when investing to expand the firm's asset base and generate returns on risk capital
Enterprise Value (EV)
Enterprise Value (EV) is a measure of a company's total value, often used as a more comprehensive alternative to equity market capitalization.
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